Theme #1: Transfusion Utilization

#The Goal

We aim to improve appropriate transfusion practice utilization across Canada by implementing evidence-based transfusion care and patient blood management into clinical transfusion practice.


  1. Cohen R, Lima A, Escorcia A, et al. Serologic Assessments in Acute Transfusion Reactions: Practices and Yields. Vox Sang 2019;114(7):749-761. 
  2. Callum J, Farkouh ME, Scales DC, et al. Effect of Fibrinogen Concentrate vs Cryoprecipitate on Blood Component Transfusion After Cardiac Surgery: The FIBRES Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019:1-11. 
  3. Chin V, Cope S, Yeh CH, et al. Massive hemorrhage protocol survey: Marked variability and absent in one-third of hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Injury 2019;50:46-53. 
  4. Callum JL, Yeh CH, Petrosoniak A, et al. A regional massive hemorrhage protocol developed through a modified Delphi technique. CMAJ Open 2019;7:E546-E61. 
  5. Sirianni G, Perri G, Callum J, Gardner S, Berall A, Selby D. A Retrospective Chart Review of Transfusion Practices in the Palliative Care Unit Setting. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2018: 1049909118806456.
  6. Karkouti K, Callum J, Rao V, et al. Protocol for a phase III, non-inferiority, randomised comparison of a new fibrinogen concentrate versus cryoprecipitate for treating acquired hypofibrinogenaemia in bleeding cardiac surgical patients: the FIBRES trial. BMJ Open 2018;8:e020741
  7. Nixon, C. P., & Sweeney, J. D. (2018). Severe iron deficiency anemia: red blood cell transfusion or intravenous iron?. Transfusion58(8), 1824-1826
  8. Khadadah F, Callum J, Shelton D, Lin Y. Improving quality of care for patients with iron deficiency anemia presenting to the emergency department. Transfusion 2018;58:1902-8. 
  9. Mueller MM, Van Remoortel H, Meybohm P, et al. Patient Blood Management: Recommendations From the 2018 Frankfurt Consensus Conference. JAMA 2019;321:983-97. 
  10. Qiang JK, Thompson T, Callum J, Pinkerton P, Lin Y. Variations in RBC and frozen plasma utilization rates across 62 Ontario community hospitals. Transfusion 2019;59:545-54. 
  11. VanderMeulen H, Strauss R, Lin Y, et al. Correction to: The contribution of iron deficiency to the risk of peripartum transfusion: a retrospective case control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020;20:230. 
  12. Lieberman L, Lin Y, Cserti-Gazdewich C, et al. Utilization of frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and recombinant factor VIIa for children with hemostatic impairments: An audit of transfusion appropriateness. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018;65. 
  13. Lieberman L, Greinacher A, Murphy MF, et al. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: recommendations for evidence-based practice, an international approach. Br J Haematol 2019;185:549-62. 
  14. Norris PAA, Segel GB, Burack WR, et al. FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII on splenic macrophages mediate phagocytosis of anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa autoantibody-opsonized platelets in immune thrombocytopenia. Haematologica 2020. 
  15. Bentley D, Flynn J, Callum J, Gollish J, Murnaghan J, Lin Y. The benefit of early identification of anemia preoperatively in patients undergoing hip and knee joint arthroplasty. International Journal of Orthopedic Nursing. 2014 Feb 1;18:39-44.
  16. Callum J, et al. Ontario Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Quality Improvement Toolkit. 2017. In comment period.
  17. Callum J, Waters JH, Shaz BH, Sloan SR, Murphy MF. The AABB recommendations for the Choosing Wisely campaign of the American Board of Internal Medicine. Transfusion. 2014 Sep;54(9):2344-2352.
  18. Chow S, Salmasi G, Callum JL, Lin Y. Trimming the fat with an IVIG approval process. Transfusion Apheresis and Science. 2012 Apr 12;46:349-352.
  19. Elmi M, Mahar A, Kagedan D, Law CH, Karanicolas PJ, Lin Y, Callum J, Coburn NG, Hallet J. The impact of blood transfusion on perioperative outcomes following gastric resection: an analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Can J Surg 2016;59:322-32
  20. Etchells M, Spradbrow J, Cohen R, Lin Y, Armali C, Lieberman L, Cserti-Gazdewich C, Pendergrast J, Callum J. Audit of appropriate use of platelet transfusions: validation of adjudication criteria. Vox Sanguinis 2018;113:40-50.
  21. Finlay L, Nippak P, Tiessen J, Isaac W, Callum JCserti-Gazdewich C. Survey of Institutional Policies for Provision of “CMV-Safe” Blood in Ontario. American Journal of Clinical Pathology November 2016; 146: 578-584.
  22. Fortinsky KJ, Martel M, Razik R, Spiegle G, Gallinger ZR, Grover SC, Pavenski K, Weizman AV, Kwapisz L, Mehta S, Gray S, Barkun AN. Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Iron Therapy for Patients Presenting with Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Survey of Canadian Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2016:5610838.
  23. Holcomb JB, Tilley BC, Baraniuk S, Fox EE, Wade CE, Podbielski JM, del Junco DJ, Brasel KJ, Bulger EM, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ, Cotton BA, Fabian TC, Inaba K, Kerby JD, Muskat P, O'Keeffe T, Rizoli S, Robinson BR, Scalea TM, Schreiber MA, Stein DM, Weinberg JA, Callum JL, Hess JR, Matijevic N, Miller CN, Pittet JF, Hoyt DB, Pearson GD, Leroux B, van Belle G; PROPPR Study Transfusion of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 ratio and mortality in patients with severe trauma: the PROPPR randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Feb 3;313(5):471-82.
  24. JainMD, Cabrerizo-Sanchez R, Karkouti K, Yau T, Pendergrast JM, Cserti-Gazdewich CM. Seek and you shall find--but then what do you do? Cold agglutinins in cardiopulmonary bypass and a single-center experience with cold agglutinin screening before cardiac surgery. Transfus Med Rev. 2013 Apr;27(2):65-73.
  25. Karkouti K, McCluskey SA, Callum J, Freedman J, Selby R, Tinmouth AT, Roy Debashis, Rao V. Evaluation of a novel transfusion algorithm employing point-of-care coagulation assays in cardiac surgery. A retrospective cohort study with interrupted time-series analysis. 2015 Mar; 122(3) 560-70.
  26. Lacroix J, Hebert PC, Fergusson DA, et al (ABLE Investigators* & Canadian Critical Care Trials Group). Age of transfused blood in critically ill adults.  New England Journal of Medicine, 2015 Apr 9th; 372(15): 1410-8.
  27. Lieberman L, Spradbrow J, Keir A, Dunn M, Lin YCallum J. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates at a tertiary academic hospital: A retrospective eleven year study. Transfusion.2016 Nov; 56 (11) 2704-2711.
  28. Lieberman L, Liu Y, Portwine C, Barty RL, Heddle NM. An epidemiologic cohort study reviewing the practice of blood product transfusions among a population of pediatric oncology patients. 2014 Oct 1;54(10 Pt 2):2736-44.
  29. Lieberman L, Bercovitz RS, Sholapur NS, Heddle NM, Stanworth SJ, Arnold DM. Platelet Transfusions for Critically ill Patients with Thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2014 Feb 20;123(8):1146-51; quiz 1280.
  30. Lin YCserti-Gazdewich CLieberman LPendergrast J, Rammler W, Skinner I, Callum J. Changing Transfusion Practice with Guidelines and Prospective Auditing by Medical Laboratory Technologists. Transfusion 2016 November; 56(11):  2903-2905.
  31. Lin Y, Moltzan CJ, Anderson DR, on behalf of the National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products. The evidence for the use of recombinant factor VIIa in massive bleeding: revision of the transfusion policy framework. Transfusion Medicine. 2012 Nov;22:383-394
  32. Lozano M, Yazer MH, van de Watering LMG, Wood EM, Rushford K, Sirdesai S, Kutner J, Yokoyama A, Lin YCallum JLCserti-Gazdewich CMLieberman LPendergrast J et al. International Forum on the in-hospital development of RBC transfusion indications and the collection of patient-specific pre-transfusion information. Vox Sanguinis. 2017;112:e22-247.  
  33. Nascimento B, Rizoli S, Rubenfeld G, Fukushima R, Ahmed N, Nathens A, Lin YCallum J. Ten years of cryoprecipitate use at a Canadian large teaching hospital: a focus on appropriateness and dosing in trauma. Transfusion Med. 2011 Dec;21(6):394-401.
  34. Parmar N, Pendergrast JLieberman LLin YCallum JCserti-Gazdewich C. The association of fever with transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO). Vox Sanguinis. 2017;112(1):70-78.
  35. Pavenski K, Rebulla P, Duquesnoy R, Saw CL, Slichter SJ, Tanael S, Shehata N. Efficacy of HLA-matched platelet transfusions for patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia: a systematic review. Transfusion. 2013;53(10):2230-42.
  36. Pavenski K, Saidenberg E, Lavoie M, Tokessy M, Branch DR. Red blood cell storage lesions and related transfusion issues: a Canadian Blood Services research and Development symposium.  Trans Med Rev  26(1):68-84, 2012 (Epub 2011 Aug 25).
  37. Sanci V, Lin YCallum J. A review of interfacility blood transportation by ambulance to a regional trauma center. Transfus Apher Sci 2017;56(3):352-353.
  38. Shih AW, Jamula E, Diep C, Lin Y, Armali C, Heddle NM, Traore A, Doherty J, Shah N, Hillis CM. Audit of provincial IVIG request forms and efficacy documentation in four Ontario tertiary care centres. Transfusion Medicine 2017;27(2):122-131.
  39. Shuvy M, Mewa J, Wolff R, Hutson J, Austin PC, Bentley D, Iacovelli M, Callum J, Radhakrishnan S, Fremes SE, Wijeysundera HC, Lin Y. Pre-Procedural Anemia Management Decreases Transfusion Rates in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2016 Jun;32(6):732-8.
  40. Spradbrow J, Cohen R, Lin Y, Armali C, Collins A, Cserti-Gazdewich CLieberman LPavenski KPendergrast J, Webert K, Callum J. Determining the quality benchmark metric for appropriate use of red blood cell transfusion: A quality audit at 10 hospitals hanging Transfusion Practice with Guidelines and Prospective Auditing by Medical Laboratory Technologists. Transfusion 2016 October; 56(10): 2466-2476.
  41. Spradbrow J, Lin Y, Shelton D, Callum J. Iron deficiency anemia in the Emergency Department: Over-utilization of red blood cell transfusion and infrequent use of iron supplementation. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2017;19(3):167-174.
  42. Tinmouth A, Thompson T, Arnold DM, Callum JL, Gagliardi K, Lauzon D, Owens W, Pinkerton P. Utilization of frozen plasma in Ontario: a province-wide audit reveals a high rate of inappropriate transfusions. Transfusion. 2013 Oct;53(10):2222-9.
  43. Tseng E, Prica A, Zhang L, Mittmann N, Seung SJ, Callum J, Kim T, Wells RA, Buckstein R. Monthly blood transfusions decrease after four months of azacitidine. Vox Sang. 2015 Aug; 109(2): 163-7.
  44. Yan M, Lin Y, Callum J. British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines for aplastic anemia: Single centre retrospective review finds no compelling evidence for the recommended higher platelet count threshold of 20 x 109/L. British J Haem 2017 Apr 5. In press.
  45. Yohanathan L, Coburn NG, McLeod RS, Kagedan DJ, Pearsall E, Zih FSW, Callum J, Lin Y, McCluskey S, Hallet J, Best Practices in General Surgery (BPIGS) group. Understanding Perioperative Transfusion Practices in Gastrointestinal Surgery - A Practice Survey of General Surgeons. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2016 Jun;20(6):1106-22.
  46. Zaffar N, Jospeh A, Mazer DC, Nisenbaum R, Karkouti K, Tinmouth A, Peterson MD, Pavenski KCallum JCserti-Gazdewich CShehata N.   The Rationale for Platelet Transfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass:  An Observational Study. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2013 Apr; 60(4): 345-54

#Online Resources

  1. Chaffin J, “Blood Bank Guy Podcasts” and Jeannie Callum. BBGE-16: Plasma Transfusion with Dr. Jeannie Callum. Podcast. Available at:
  2. Helman A, Himmel W, Callum JLin Y. Podcast Episode 65, IV Iron for Anemia in Emergency Medicine. Toronto (Canada): 2015 May 28. Available from:
  3. Himmel W, Pavenski K, Callum J, Helman A. Podcast Episode 36: Transfusions, Anticoagulants & Bleeding. Toronto (Canada); 2013 Sep 20. Available from:
  4. Himmel W, Pavenski K, Callum J, Helman A. Podcast Episode 36: Anticoagulants, PCCs and Platelets. Toronto (Canada); 2013 Oct 7. Available from:
  5. Lin Y, Thompson T. Why give two when one will do? Red Blood Cell Transfusion Toolkit, Choosing Wisely Canada. Choosing Wisely Canada, editor(s). Toronto (Canada); 2016 Apr 1. Available from:


  1. Akhter Ferdous S, Sondi N, Balmer S, Cursio C, Lieberman LPendergrast J, Cserti-Gazdewich C. Counting the Colloid: An Audit of Overall and Individual Allocations of Albumin by Patient Care Area. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Vancouver BC, May 11-15, 2016.
  2. Chen I, Kopolovic I, Phua C, Kennedy J, Pendergrast J, Shehata N, Lin Y, Pavenski K, Hicks L. Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion at Academic Hospitals: An Audit and Qualitative Study, American Association of Blood Banks (aaBB) Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, October 2016.
  3. Cserti-Gazdewich CMLin Y, Lieberman LD, Callum J, Pendergrast J, Pavenski KLau WSkeate RC, Latour C, Shehata N.  Blood Use and Kell Seroconversion Mitigation Practices In Females Across Five Hospitals. American Association of Blood Banks (aaBB) Annual Meeting, Anaheim CA; October 23-27, 2015; ID 2304515, SP-288, Transfusion 2015; 55S3: 172-3A.
  4. Hiy M, Callum JCserti-Gazdewich CLin YPendergrast J, Rammler W, Lieberman L. Unnecessary Use of Intravenous Albumin at a Large Community Hospital. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Vancouver BC, May 11-15, 2016.
  5. Khadadah F, Callum J, Shelton D, Lin Y. Improving appropriateness of RBC transfusion for iron deficiency anemia patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Ottawa, ON, April 20-23, 2017.
  6. Lam, K, Pavenski K, Rockman R, Teitel J, Mazer CD. Cryoprecipiate use in on-pump cardiac surgery. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Halifax, May 2012.
  7. Latour C, LeBlanc M, Pavenski K. Transfusion practice in acute UGIB. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 2015.
  8. Lieberman L, Jaffer A, Barty R, Wang G, Heddle NM. Platelet Refractoriness in Pediatric Oncology Patients. Transfusion. 2014 Oct;54(2S):135A. American Association of Blood Banks (aaBB) Philadelphia, Pennsylvnia, Oct 2014.
  9. Lieberman L, Lee J, Lin YCallum J, Ip P. SCIG vs. IVIG for recurrent infection in patients with secondary immunodeficiency due to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine Annual Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, May 12 2016
  10. Lieberman L, Torbicki E, Lin YCserti-Gazdewich CPendergrast JLau WCallum J. Utilization Of Frozen Plasma, Cryoprecipitate And Recombinant Factor 7a In Paediatrics: An Audit Of Transfusion Appropriateness.  American Association of Blood Banks (aaBB) Annual Meeting, Anaheim CA; October 23-27, 2015; ID 2304670, S54-030J, Transfusion 2015; 55S3: 30A, October 23-27, 2015.
  11. Lin YLieberman LCserti-Gazdewich CMPendergrast J, Johnson G, Rammler W, Skinner I, Reis M, Callum J. Improving Red Blood Cell Utilization At A Community Hospital In Partnership With An Academic Teaching Hospital Collaborative. American Association of Blood Banks (aaBB) Annual Meeting, Anaheim CA; October 23-27, 2015; ID 2304514, SP297;  Transfusion 2015; 55S3: 177A
  12. Lin Y, Collins A, Elahie A, Evanovitch D, Harrison L. Saidenberg E, Lafond G, Lauzon D, Thompson T, Owens W. Red Blood Cell Audit at five community hospitals. Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine Annual Meeting. Quebec, Quebec, Canada. May 2014
  13. MacQuarrie M, Fitzgibbon S, Angers M, Cserti-Gazdewich C.  Use of a Remote Allocation Blood Fridge within a Large Transfusion Laboratory. Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Quebec City PQ, May 1-4, 2014.
  14. Richards L, Cserti-Gazdewich C, Cameron T, Evanovitch D, Lin Y. Prospective Blood Product Order Screening By Technologists:   Educating and Empowering to Keep our Patients Safe. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Ottawa ON, Apr 20-23, 2017.
  15. Richards L, Skinner I, Callum JPendergrast JCserti-Gazdewich CLin YLieberman L. Successful Reduction in Institutional IVIG Utilization by Effective Implementation of Provincial Guidelines. Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) Annual Meeting, Vancouver BC, May 11-15, 2016.
  16. Scheuermann S, Evanovitch D, Thompson T, Lin Y, Cameron T, Collins A, Owens W. Development of the Ontario Transfusion Quality Improvement Plan (OTQIP) Toolkit. Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine Annual Meeting. Vancouver BC, May 11-15, 2016.
  17. Yan M, Lin Y, Callum J. Platelet transfusion thresholds during anti-thymocyte globulin therapy for aplastic anemia and hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome. Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine Annual Meeting. Ottawa, ON, Apr 20-23, 2017.


  1. 2016. Principal Investigator. A randomized trial comparing fibrinogen concentrate with cryoprecipitate for the treatment of acquired hypofibrinogenemia in bleeding cardiac surgical patients FIBrinogen REplenishment in Surgery (FIBRES Study). Funding source: Octapharma. PI: Karkouti K. Collaborator(s): Callum J, Crowther M, Heddle N, Rizoli S, Scales DC, Rao V. 1,000,000 CAD [Grants]
  2. 2016. Principal Investigator. A multifaceted intervention to optimize red blood cell transfusion practice in two provinces. Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation (START study) – 2016 Intramural Grant Competition. PI: Callum J. Collaborator(s): Nahirniak S, Lin Y, Collins A, Webert K. 332,924 CAD [Grants]
  3. 2016. Senior Investigator. The incidence of preoperative anemia and iron deficiency in the gynecology oncology patient population who underwent an open approach procedures at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in 2014. Odette Cancer Centre. 2015 Practice Based Research Seed Grant Program. PI: Iacovelli M. Collaborator(s): Bentley D, Vicus D, Lin Y. 6,051.25 CAD [Grants]
  4. 2016. Co-Investigator. The HeLiX Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo to Reduce Perioperative Blood Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Liver Resection. Canadian Institute of Health Research Project Grant 2016 Spring Competition. PI: Karanicolas P. Collaborator(s) Guyatt G, Lin Y, McCluskey S, Dixon E, Porter G, et al. 100,000 CAD [Grants]
  5. 2016. Principal Investigator. Podcast for FNAIT and ICTMG Red Cell Specifications for Hemoglobinopathies Guidelines. Canadian Blood Services. BloodTechNet. PI: Lieberman L, Yan M, Fung M, Shehata N. 6,200 CAD. [Grants]
  6. 2015. Principal Investigator. Setting the benchmark metric for red blood cell transfusion (RBC) to allow for assessment of optimal transfusion care: A pilot quality project at 10 hospitals. Canadian Hematology Society. RK Smiley Research Grant. PI: Lin Y, Collaborator(s): Callum J, Collins A, Cserti-Gazdewich C, Lieberman L, Pavenski KPendergrast J, Shehata N, Webert K. 10,000 CAD [Grants]
  7. 2014. Co-Investigator. Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo to Reduce Perioperative Blood Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Major Liver Resection: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial. Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Blood Utilization and Conservation. PI: Karanicolas P. Collaborator(s): Chaudhury P, Dixon E, Lin Y, McCluskey S, Porter Geoffrey, Tarshis J, Wei A. 248,319 CAD [Grants]
  8. 2014. Principal Investigator. Red blood cell transfusion thresholds and quality of life in myelodysplastic syndrome: a pilot, feasibility study. (ENHANCE-RBC) Canadian Cancer Society. Quality of Life Research Grant. 702595. PI: Buckstein R, Lin Y. Collaborator(s): Callum J, Wells R, Yee K, Prica A. 112,347 CAD [Grants]
  9. 2014. Principal Investigator. Blood Conservation in Cardiac Surgery Using a Novel Transfusion Algorithm Based on Point-of-Care Testing: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (TACS Study) (New Grant). CIHR Operating Grant. PI: Karkouti K. Collaborator(s): Callum J, Crowther M, Grocott H, Rao V, Scales D, Wijeysundera D. 484,584 CAD [Grants]
  10. 2014. Principal Investigator. Utilization of Frozen Plasma, Cryoprecipitate and Factor VIIa in Paediatrics: An Audit of Transfusion Appropriateness. Alexandra Yeo Projects (Hematology).University of Toronto: Department of Hematology. PI: Lieberman L Collaborator(s): Callum JLau WLin YPendergrast JCserti-Gazdewich C. 2,800 CAD [Research Fellowships]
  11. 2013. Site Investigator. Clinical effectiveness of standard versus pathogen-reduced buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates in plasma in hemato-oncological patients. Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation. PI: Brand A. Site PI: Lin Y. 41,376 CAD [Clinical Trials]
  12. 2013. Co-Investigator. A randomized controlled trial of pre-operative treatment with ferrous fumarate 300mg once daily versus placebo in newly diagnosed gynecologic oncology patients who are primary surgical candidates. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Toronto, ON). Sunnybrook AFP Innovation Fund. PI: Vicus DCollaborator(s): Lin Y, Pasetka M, Callum J. 72,762 CAD [ Grants]
  13. 2012. Principal Investigator. An Epidemiological Cohort Study Reviewing The Practice Of Blood Product Transfusions Among A Population Of Pediatric Oncology Patients. Canadian Blood Services, Small Projects Grant PI: Lieberman L. 15,000 CAD [Grants]


  1. Nahirniak S, Slichter SJ, Tanael S, Rebulla P, Pavenski K, Vassallo R, Fung M, Duquesnoy R, Saw CL, Stanworth S, Tinmouth A, Hume H, Ponnampalam A, Moltzan C, Berry B, Shehata N, International Collaboration for Transfusion Medicine Guidelines (ICTMG). Guidance on Platelet Transfusion for Patients With Hypoproliferative Thrombocytopenia. (United States): Transfusion Medicine Reviews; 2014 Nov 27. 2015 Jan;29(1):3-13.
  2. Policy - Transfusion Guidelines revision 2014-2016. University Health Network, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Lakeridge Health (4 hospital sites), Sault Area Hospital, Timmins District and Hospital (11 associated hospital sites), Weeneybayko Area Health Authority.
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